mesopotamian gods and goddesses

Anu(An) is the God of the sky. Centuries old depictions show her carrying a double-headed mace and sometimes a lion-headed scimitar. He was identified with Meslamtaea and Irra as the god of war and scorched earth. Some of the Sumerian gods and goddesses included: Anu - Sometimes called An, Anu was the god of the heavens and king of the gods. Nisaba – Goddess of Writing, Learning & Harvest, 15 Facts About Ancient Egyptian Gods That You should Know, 15 Adorable Ancient Greek Vase Paintings You Will Love, 10 Shocking Secrets of Ancient Egypt that you…, 13 Oldest and Ancient Civilizations of the World, 15 Mesopotamia Achievements and Inventions : What…, Code of Hammurabi Considered a Legal Innovation : 13…, 15 Amazing Facts About The Ancient Olympics. The Assyrian kings who came to power after 14th century BC associated their names with this god. Both Irkalla and Hades are the names for the territory of the underworld and its gods. One such main goddess was Tiamat who symbolized the primordial ocean that gave birth to Mesopotamia’s first set of gods. Even her priests were granted the gift of prophecy after performing certain rituals that involved death and resurrection. There is, however, a source that claims that Enlil had a negative side to his personality. Hadad was depicted with a bearded look, with thunderbolt and a club clenched in his fists. The fearsome demon who guards the Cedar Forest forbidden to mortals. Save my name and email in this browser for the next time I comment. We have tried to collect as many Holy Aliases as possible. As a result, Nergal was rejected by the other goddesses and the only goddess left for him to marry was Ereshkigal. The prostitutes of ancient Mesopotamia worshiped the goddess as she was regarded as their patron deity. Called ‘King of Gods’, Marduk was the chief god or deity of Babylon and was sometimes addressed as the Storm god. Ea lives in Apsu, the primal waters below the Earth. Agriculture and compassion are co-related when it comes to Sumerian mythology as a bountiful harvest shows the compassion of the gods. The goddess of beauty, sex, love, and fertility, Ishtar, was the East Semitic version of Inanna, the Sumerian goddess; the Northwest Semitic goddess was called Astarte; and the Armenian goddess was called Astghik. She demands to be Gilgamesh’s consort and on his refusal, Ishtar unleashes the Bull of Heaven which results in the death of the wild man, Enkidu. Each city was protected by its own special god or goddess and their family. Inana/Ištar. The god of fresh water, crafts, and wisdom, a patron of humankind. Before her death, she brings monsters into the Mesopotamian pantheon: the first dragons whose bodies were filled with venom. The god Ashur was a highly respected deity worshiped mainly in north east Syria and old Assyria. Apkallu griffin. He was typically worshiped along with his famous animal – the bull. Download Mesopotamian Gods Goddesses Book For Free in PDF, EPUB. genealogy of the Gods. Ereshkigal’s main temple was situated in Kutha. Price New from Used from Library Binding "Please retry" — — The 10 Oldest Ancient Civilizations That Have Ever Existed, Top 10 Most Worshiped Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, Top 10 Inventions and Discoveries of Ancient Greece…, Top 11 Inventions and Discoveries of Mesopotamia, Epic of Gilgamesh: Summary in 10 Interesting Points, Top 21 Fascinating Facts about the Ancient Persian Empire, Top 12 Surprising and Fascinating Facts about Ancient Sumer, Top 13 Surprising and Fascinating Facts about Ancient Babylonia, Top 12 Fascinating Facts about Ancient Mesopotamia. The Sumerian Pantheon. Whether the priestess performed sexual acts or not is still a matter of conjecture though many have argued that this never happened. Shamash was considered the patron deity of justice. It is infused with the divine, because religion played a crucial part in the way Mesopotamians expressed their thoughts about human life. Her symbols were the eight-pointed star and a lion. When Ninshubur, Inanna’s second in command, pleads with Ereshkigal, she agrees to help Inanna. The Sumerians believed that Anu was the god that ruled over heaven, and was the supreme powerful entity that commanded all other gods and goddesses. She is said to be the daughter of the god of the sky, Anu. Nanshe, the Goddess of Social Justice and Prophecy. Like Dumuzid she was mainly a rural deity. The goddess Inanna’s descent to the underworld is one of two myths that revolve around Irkalla. Out of clay, Enki created the first set of humans to serve the gods. She was worshiped by the people of Upper Mesopotamia in the Assyrian cities of Ashur, Arbela, and Nineveh. Ishtar was a… Du Bois Life and Contribution, 15 Most Disastrous Pandemics That Changed History, 15 Fearless Female Warriors of Ancient World. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. There were two very opposing aspects to her personality or how she was projected at various points in time. In Cuneiform script, the names of deities are preceded with the determinative sign {DINGIR}. Tiamat- The Goddess of Salt Sea and Mother of Several Deities. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Adad (Ishkur) Amurru (Martu) Anu (An) Anzu. She is often represented by the Greek symbol Omega, with a knife. Most early records or writings of Sumerians hint towards the existence of the cult that followed Shamash. The goddess is regarded as one of the oldest worshiped deities in Babylon. As goddess of prophecy, she determined the future by oneiromancy, the process of interpreting dreams. She sends two sexless creatures to revive her younger sister with water and food. Apsu (m.) God of fresh water. He was believed to be the benefactor of humans, listening to their prayers, bringing life from death, and protecting livestock and agriculture. She is the goddess of the earth and the wife, sister, and counterpart to Anshar, god of the sky. Nanshe was the daughter of … Top 10 Ancient Mesopotamian Goddesses 1. Also Read: 15 Famous Greek Goddesses in Ancient Greece. She gave birth to the moon god, Nanna or Suen. There were hundreds of gods who were responsible for everything in the world, from rivers and trees to making bread and pottery. All these brothers were also gods of underworld and irrigation. She was closely related to Venus in the Babylonian pantheon. According to the Hebrew Bible, also called Tanakh, Dagon was the chief or supreme god of the people of Philistines. In the religion of Mesopotamian people, there were innumerable gods and goddesses, each of whom personified a specific aspect or element. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Another myth talks about her marriage to Nergal who was the god of plague. Ea. Ereshkigal brings Inanna back to life. Her name Irkalla is the equivalent of Hades in Greek mythology. Enki’s son, Marduk, the storm god, finally kills her. They loved writing and it was during their time that various forms of texts and tablets came to be written and spoken about. Ninurta was often depicted as a god who held a bow and an arrow along with a mace or a sword. All the above listed gods and goddesses were an integral part of ancient Mesopotamian lands, and were heavily influenced by various empires that reigned Mesopotamia from time to time. Shala is said to be the wife of Dagon, the god of fertility, and consort to Hadad, the storm god. The Mesopotamian religious beliefs of the Akkadians put tremendous importance on worshiping various gods and goddesses, each representing a natural element. In Sumer, she was originally known as Damgalnuna and Damkina who was a nurturing mother and had associations with fertility. Hadad was one of the chief gods to have had many temples and sanctuaries in Babylon, Uruk, Ur and Nippur. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Mesopotamian Gods & Goddesses (Gods and Goddesses of Mythology) Library Binding – January 1, 2014 by Vincent Hale (Editor) 4.5 out of 5 stars 2 ratings. Called Mulliltu in Assyria, Ninlil is the wife of Enlil. He is the sacred ruler of all the Gods. Neti follows these instructions and when Inanna reaches the throne, she is naked and powerless. A banquet was held by the gods which Ereshkigal did not attend. The source is an 18th century BC epic that was found at Akkadia and is called Atra-Hasis. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. In the codes were written land laws directed from Shamash himself. In Sumerian mythology, Ereshkigal or Irkalla was considered the... 2. There are other mentions of him in various Akkadian texts where he is depicted as a destroyer. Her name actually means “whole earth.” She appears in the opening lines of the creation myth, Enuma Elish, but then suddenly disappears. Shulmanu – God of the Underworld, Fertility and War, 14. Nevertheless, some gods and goddesses feature more significantly in the religion of Sumer, and thus may be considered to be the main deities of the Sumerian pantheon. Inanna travels to the underworld with the aim of extending her powers. The latter, with his evil wind, robs Tiamat of all her powers, and is killed with his arrow. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. She was the deity of writing and scribes. Most people worshiped him in an avatar that wore a horned head dress. One such god was Shamash or Utu. Ancients hymns also show him to be the god of devastation, hunger, and pestilence. But the ancient Mesopotamian people believed that the gods ruled every aspect of their life. Start studying Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses. Copyright © (2016 - 2020) When Enki, the god of water, is informed about it, Neti, the gatekeeper, is ordered to close all the gates and open them one at a time as Inanna removes pieces of her clothing. She is mentioned in several works of the Seleucid era. Gods and Goddesses Since approximately 4500 BC there have been settlements on the edges of the marshes where the Tigris and the Euphrates reach the Persian Gulf. As per one aspect, Tiamat was a personification of feminine beauty and grace. All Rights Reserved. Ishtar was regarded as the supreme goddess of beauty and desire. Enlil was a supreme entity worshiped primarily in Nippur, the city that he patronized. One such main goddess was Tiamat who symbolized the primordial ocean that gave birth to Mesopotamia’s first set of gods. She was mentioned in a well known hymn called Kesh Temple Hymn or Liturgy to Nintud, comprised in 2600 BC in which there was a collection of eight set of songs, all dedicated to Nisaba. There were two very opposing aspects to her personality or how she was projected at various points in time. The gods and demons The gods were, as mentioned previously, organized in a polity of a primitive democratic cast. Evidence suggests that she is either the daughter of Nunbarsegunu and Haia or Nammu and Anu. That means Shamash was worshiped 5000 years ago as one of the chief lords. Mesopotamian gods and goddesses are known from the literature of the Sumerian people, the oldest written language on our planet. But, if the god was so supreme, then how come his name or portrait never appeared in any ancient Sumerian art? If two fields were side by side and one was growing with tall thick crops and the other full of weeds then the gods favored the one and disliked the other. Personifying the natural elements of rain and storm, the god Hadad or Adad was worshiped by people who believed in Semitic religion. Ninurta was a god, depicted in Mesopotamian texts as a winged lion, and was worshiped as the patron lord of law and scribes. Aruru. Once the killings were over, the god gave back the tablet to Enlil. Being the goddess of the underworld, she sent her messenger Namtar who was treated well by all the gods and goddesses except for Nergal. In the battle, Ninurta killed other monsters like the dragon, bison beast, the snake with seven heads, mermaid, wild ram with six heads, Palm tree king and Lord Saman-ana. Enlil (or Ashur) - god of air, head of the Assyrian and Sumerian pantheon Anu (or An) - god of heaven and the sky, lord of constellations, and father of the gods Dagon (or Dagan) - god of fertility Enki (or Ea) - god of the Abzu, crafts, water, intelligence, mischief and creation and divine ruler of the Earth and its humans She used to live in Dilmun where she was impregnated by Enlil as he lay beside her by the water. The three supreme gods considered to be the most powerful in ancient Mesopotamian religion were Anu, Enki and Enlil. theogony. Mesopotamians believed in living life in accordance with the will of gods. Those stories were written down by city administrators whose jobs involved the upkeep of the religion, along with the upkeep of commerce and trade. The patron goddess of beer, Ninkasi was one among the chief deities worshiped massively in ancient Mesopotamia. They constituted, as it were, a landed nobility, each god owning and working an estate—his temple and its lands—and controlling the city in which it was located. In order to bring him back, she agrees to take his place in Kur for half a year so that he can return to heaven and to Inanna. Part of the Sumerian pantheon, she was known as the goddess who could satisfy the heart’s desires, and because of her involvement in it, the art of brewing in Sumer was protected and sanctioned by Ninkasi and two other goddesses. He later impregnated her again while she was disguised as a gatekeeper, leading to the birth of the god of death, Nergal. On the other hand, she symbolized chaos. The Assyrian empires like Middle Assyrian Empire, the Empire of Shamshi-Adad I, and Neo-Assyrian Empire made Ashur the chief god of Mesopotamia and he reigned supreme. Please feel free to comment on our post on ancient Mesopotamian religious beliefs in the 15 gods and goddesses, and do share extra facts with us if you wish! She is the oldest of all the goddesses in the Mesopotamian pantheon. There are mentions of Enki in numerous Sumerian texts that speak about the power of his virility. Texts show that the goddess had two parts: the Tiamat mythos and Chaoskampf Tiamat. Completely enraged, she takes the form of a sea dragon and wages war against the killers. There is a poem that is dedicated to Ninkasi, called Hymn to Ninkasi that honors the goddess and showers praises on her and her craft at brewing beer. In order to throw some light on Mesopotamian mythology, here is a list of 10 goddesses from the Mesopotamian pantheon: In Sumerian mythology, Ereshkigal or Irkalla was considered the queen of the land of the dead. You can identify him by His Horned Cap. The mountains get created from her breasts, while, her spit gives birth to mist. 15 Famous Greek Goddesses in Ancient Greece, 15 Interesting Facts about Norse Mythology, 15 Interesting Things about Ancient Chinese Mythology, 14 Facts about W.EB. ( Fredsvenn) Sumer: A Cradle of Civilization . Think…think…!! These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. As per one aspect, Tiamat was a personi… Assyria arriv… He was the son of Enlil and Ninlil, gods that were considered very important in Nippur. PLAY. Read as many books as you like (Personal use) and Join Over 150.000 Happy Readers. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Sul-pa-e, who had a role in the underworld, was a minor god and her husband. Another source says that she is the daughter of Antu and Anu. Mesopotamian culture varied from region to region, from city-state to city-state and, because of this, Marduk should not be regarded as King of the Gods in the same way Zeus ruled in Greece.While Marduk was venerated highly in Babylon, Enlil held that place in Sumer. Gods are often known by several names. He was the supreme god of Babylonians and had his main temple called Esagila. These included – Supreme Ruler of the Kingdom of Heaven, and Lord of the Constellations. Her associations with Virgo have been talked about by many scribes and this association has resulted in the present-day constellation of Virgo. It was between 3500 BC to 400 BC that Mesopotamia came to be heavily influenced by these deities that represented many a things and beliefs. He was also worshiped by Mesopotamians as the deity of justice, magic and agriculture. He also brought the rivers of Tigris and Euphrates to flow out from her eyes, and basically helped in creating the world. The Sumerian goddess Geshtinanna is the wife of Ningisida and sister of Dumuzid. One god or deity to have been revered as the god of fertility was Dagon, or Dagan. The mythological god, as per many sources, was believed to have lived in Abzu and was the protector of Eridu, a southern city of Mesopotamia. The religion of Mesopotamian people was dominated by the presence of several prime gods and goddesses. The Sumerians were well known scientists and inventors of ancient world. Her husband Absu is killed by them so that they could take over the throne. But, there are other sources that claim that he was the son of Ninhursag, the goddess of harvest. In the epic myth of Enuma Elis, Tiamat is the antagonist and fights Marduk. Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses. And, he did this all simply because he was irritated at humans for making loud noises that interrupted his sleep. He was also known as Shulman and his worship started out in Assyria. The god destroys the land with a strong wind and makes it barren. Image Credit: deviantart In the religion of Mesopotamian people, there were innumerable gods and goddesses, each of whom personified a specific aspect or element. Kishar is the daughter of Lahamu and Lahmu, the first children of Abzu and Tiamat, and mother to Anu. Nergal is known as the Lord of the underworld, but also as the god of death, plague and pestilence. Though, in 2700 BC, Nisaba was worshiped as a grain goddess, however, later, she came to be associated with the city of Eresh in Mesopotamia as the leading deity of scribes and keeper of mortal accounts. In literature, she is known as Ninkigal which means “Lady of the Great Earth.” She was the only woman who made laws or passed judgments in the kingdom of the dead. The first part represents the image of a sacred goddess and the union of marriage between fresh and salt water, and in the second form she has monstrous associations for she is the symbol of primordial chaos. He was the husband of Goddess Ningal, and father of Inanna and Utu. In the law codes, Shamash is shown as the ruler and controller of the universe. The Mesopotamian religious beliefs of the natives of east Semitic Babylonia, Assyria and Akkadia largely focused on the worship of Shulmanu, the divine lord of the underworld and fertility. Ištaran. Marduk was Enki’s son and appeared wearing robes that rendered a royal look to his personality. Her temple was situated at Sirara near Nina. In the later part of 2050 BC, Ishtar came to be worshiped as the patron goddess of war and combat, and was therefore, respected by all Assyrian kings. Other depictions show him with wings and solar disc. However, there are quite a few paradoxes regarding his name and what element he personified. The moon god as Sin was most popularly called, had three brothers, namely – Ninazu, Nergal-Meslamtaea, and Enbililu. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. In the Sumero-Akkadian pantheon, Nergal was a secondary Mesopotamian god. Later on, she was depicted as the consort of Enki, the god of wisdom. The goddess is regarded as one of the oldest worshiped deities in Babylon. Tiamat (f.) married to Apsu and is the goddess of salt water and the ocean. The major deities of the Mesopotamian pantheon, which included the Anunnaki, were believed to participate in the "assembly of the gods", through which the gods made all of their decisions. The people trusted the priests and These cookies do not store any personal information. Sumerians say that while she was in Kur, the earth became barren giving rise to the season of summer. Representing a bull, Sin or Nanna was the protector and patron deity of Ur. As goddess of social justice and balance, Nanshe provided help to widows, acted as a parent to orphans, saved people from troubled regions, and provided advice to those in debt. The people of Uruk were also great devotees of Ishtar. It was Marduk that slayed goddess Tiamat and split her body into earth and heaven. It was in 14th century BC that Ashur came to be known as the husband of Ninlil and father of Zababa and Ninirta. While the great gods of the pantheon were worshipped by priests at rituals in cultic centers, ordinary people had no direct contact with these deities. She has been called various names such as Ninmakh, Mama, Makh, Aruru, and Mamma. She had multiple functions such as fertility, fishing, wildlife, social justice, and prophecy, and had a close association with water just like her father. It also meant destruction in the form of floods. Historically speaking, it was Mesopotamia that gave birth to the earliest recipe of brewed beer. The gods of the Mesopotamian region were by no means uniform in name, power, provenance or status in the hierarchy. The Omega can be taken as the uterus, the knife being used to cut the umbilical cord. Adad or Ishkur - god of storms, venerated as a supreme power especially in Syria and Lebanon He dedicated this mountain to Ninmah, his mother, who later came to be known as Ninhursag. In order to read online Mesopotamian Gods Goddesses textbook, you need to create a FREE account. Lugalgirra: … In her other form she is a dragon as large as the sky. Ishtar – Goddess of Fertility, Love, and War, 7. Before Syriac Christianity took over Mesopotamia, these people had unique sets of Mesopotamian religious beliefs that included worship of main gods and deities like Ishtar, Marduk, Anu, and Tiamat among a host of others. The god was the divine personification of magic, intelligence as well as crafts and creations. When Inanna finds out that her husband did not mourn her death, she tells the demons to take him in her place. Apkallu fish. Ninhursag is also named as the mother of men and gods and is called different things in different myths. Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses. how the elements of the universe are created. He is goddess Atargatis’s consort and was the main god of the western Semites. She was also related to dreams and was considered as a mother goddess. He was an east Semitic god who was also known as Assur. Most Assyrian artworks depict him as a fish god. See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. Her temple at the Zagros mountains was always visited by kings before they went away on their many military and war campaigns.

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